, Tammany realized it needed reformers on the ticket, but it had a hard time working with them. This urban beauty even extends back to the early 1900s. Over the years a large proportion of America’s brightest and most ambitious and driven individuals have been drawn to Manhattan. She ran a number of brothels throughout the city for over half a century and was a celebrity in her own right. , The economy of New York City was boosted by the war effort, but not to the extent of cities with heavy industries such as Pittsburgh, Chicago, Los Angeles or Detroit. By 1900 it grew even more dominant and was starting to approach London as a world financial center. These two skyscrapers were not topped off until their soaring heights seemed rather overoptimistic. The port was the main point of embarkation for U.S. troops traveling to Europe during World War I. Tens of thousands of adults took correspondence courses through the mail. ", Joanne Reitano, "Moving Minds and Mountains: African Americans in New York City from 1919 to 1945,", Kenneth T. Jackson, and Hillary Ballon, eds. , The Democrats, under the leadership of Al Smith and Robert F. Wagner embraced reform in the 1910s and 1920s, especially to the benefit of their core constituency, the working class.  The first is a boom period during 1898–1929, with a population growth by a factor of six from 200,000 in 1900 to 1.3 million in 1930. With the creation of the Federal Reserve System in 1913, the Federal Reserve Bank of New York became a powerful player under its dynamic president Benjamin Strong. The Great Depression, which was to affect the rest of the world, began with the Stock Market Crash of 1929. The spirit of the progressive era infused New York politics, energizing the reformers with a condemnation of inefficiency, waste, and corruption. This picture was taken on September 23, 1911 at the Nassau Boulevard Aerodrome International Aviation Meet in Garden City, Long Island, New York… New York City - New York City - Internal migration: An often ignored force of change in New York is the constant internal migration it attracts. Destination: New York City. It shows a crowded community in a very small area.  Hearst became a leader of the left wing of the Democratic Party and was nearly elected mayor in 1905 and governor in 1906. Moses was a great proponent of automobile-centered modernism whose legacy of massive construction projects is still controversial. The Library of Congress affords us the opportunity to look back at New York when it was just entering the 20th century.  John D. Rockefeller, of Standard Oil, expanded from a dominant position in oil to other industries as well as banking. However, in the 1920s the ILGWU was ripped apart by battles between the established leadership, the Communists. It promoted a reform image itself, sponsored reformers as mayor, and downplayed overt forms of corruption, graft, and bribery. There were 200,000 of them in the city, producing nearly 2,500 short tons (2,300 t) of manure daily. in Anthony Sutcliffe, editor. Mitchel had strong support from the progressives, enabling him to reorganize the bureaucracy, crackdown on vice, and make taxation more efficient. In addition, the system operated training schools in music the arts, science, cooking, the needle trades, printing, and the like, with special schools for handicapped children and a large evening program for adults. This particular motorman had almost no training, instead of the usual 20 days minimum of training, and was recovering from the 1918 flu pandemic, which had just killed his daughter. Jackson, Kenneth T. and David S. Dunbar, eds. The problem came with girls attending high school. , In 1850 about a third of the 50,000 American Jews lived in New York; they spoke German (not Yiddish), were active in Reform congregations, and took major leadership roles in the city's banking, financial, merchandising, and clothing industries. That year, the cities of New York—which then consisted of present-day Manhattan and the Bronx—and Brooklyn were both consolidated with the largely rural areas of Queens and Staten Island. Sure, the good ol' U. S. of A. might have sounded perfect on paper, but life back then wasn't easy. But in 1906 Tammany cut a deal and supported Hearst for governor, so McClellan broke with the machine. The stories dominating banking, business, and big deals. The Port of New York and New Jersey was the largest American port by far, serving both passenger and merchant vessels. Phelps Stokes; The Iconography of Manhattan Island Vol 5. as well as other partner offers and accept our, The 35 best Reuters photos of the year so far. William Jay Gaynor, reform judge, won the Tammany nomination in 1909. The population was highly diverse in terms of ethnicity, race, religion and class.  ILGWU membership had dropped to 40,000 (the great majority of whom were women). The Erie Canal was not located in New York City, but as it connected the Hudson River with the Great Lakes, it made New York City the gateway to the interior of North America. Seth Low, prominent Brooklyn businessman, experienced politician, and president of Columbia University, united reformers and the Republicans in a fusion ticket that won the mayor's race in 1902. Most new arrivals already had some idea of what they were coming to, from family letters and widely available pamphlet literature. New York City - New York City - Growth of the metropolis: Despite the loss of the national government, New York’s population skyrocketed in 1781–1800, and it became America’s largest city. In 1900 the New York State Legislature created the New York State Tenement House Commission, which created a separate Tenement House Department for the City of New York. The Library of Congress estimates that by 1904, one in three people living in the cities was close to starvation.  The great majority of travelers from Europe came through New York City, and the immigrants did their paperwork at Ellis Island. There were numerous medical and law schools.  Harlem became the political capital of black America, with highly controversial leadership from Marcus Garvey in the early 1920s. On April 13, 1913, the 60 feet (18 m) Titanic Memorial Lighthouse in Lower Manhattan was constructed on the roof of the Seamen's Church Institute. The population was highly diverse in terms of ethnicity, race, religion and class. The era began with the formation of the consolidated city of the five boroughs in 1898, with a total population of 3.4 million.  Horses were used for transportation in 1900, as they had been throughout the history of the city. , Columbia University developed an international reputation as a major research center in a wide range of the arts, sciences, humanities, and medical fields. Many of the city’s low-rise buildings were being bulldozed in favor of steel-frame office towers topping 20 stories. 1777-. , Fordham University took the lead among the Catholic colleges, adding a medical school, a law school, a business school, and other units. Under the leadership of Sidney Hillman, it played a central role in forming the militant Congress of Industrial Organizations in the mid-1930s, and giving Hillman a powerful voice in the New Deal Coalition. The New York Times had shrunk to almost nothing by the 1890s. Flamboyant Mayor Jimmy Walker resigned and fled to Europe after state investigations showed he had taken bribes. From the 1850s through the early 1900s, thousands of immigrants arrived in the United States and lived in New York City. There were massive building projects including highways, bridges, public housing, new schools, and expansion of the Brooklyn Navy Yard. The New York Stock Exchange was the national focus of wealth making and speculation until its shares suddenly collapsed late in 1929, setting off the worldwide Great Depression.. , There was no citywide machine. While New York City underwent major developments in the 300 years between European settlement and World War I, it was the early 1900s that saw … Most Jews arrived in New York, however, during the late 1800s to early 1900s when they left areas of Russia, Poland, Germany, Hungary, and elsewhere to make a new life in America. These images give us an idea of what life was like in the early 1900s — how landmarks have changed or, remarkably, stayed the same. The Pennsylvania Station, a similarly large and grand railway station several blocks to the west that was torn down in 1963, had opened in 1910. None of these cities, however were the most violent in America. Samuel L. Baily, "The Adjustment of Italian Immigrants in Buenos Aires and New York, 1870–1914. Early 20th century New York was a lot like the city of today. With the Democratic Party in the city largely controlled by the conservative Irish, Dubinsky and Hillman and their unions formed a new political party in 1936, the American Labor Party. New transportation links, especially the New York City Subway, opened in 1904, bound together the new metropolis. On June 15, 1904, over 1,000 people, mostly German ethnics, were killed when the excursion steamship General Slocum caught fire and burned in the East River. , On the night of April 14–15, 1912, the ocean liner RMS Titanic was en route in the North Atlantic to New York when it sank, killing 1,500 of the 2,200 people. Listen as he reflects back on the changes he has seen over the past forty years: "Back in 1880, it was wise to watch where you walked. Each ethnic group had violent youth gangs; Irish gangs were especially aggressive. City Life in the Early 1900s. ", Daniel Czitrom, "Underworlds and underdogs: Big Tim Sullivan and metropolitan politics in New York, 1889–1913,", Marvin G. Weinbaum, "New York County Republican Politics, 1897–1922: The Quarter-Century After Municipal Consolidation. It became one of the major agencies of the New York metropolitan area to handle large-scale projects, especially under the leadership of Austin Tobin. Probably most saw their dreams realized in their children rather than themselves.  "Big Tim" Sullivan was the Tammany leader in the Bowery and the machine's spokesman in the state legislature. in, Richard Skolnik, "Civic Group Progressivism In New York City,", J. Joseph Huthmacher, "Charles Evans Hughes and Charles Francis Murphy: The Metamorphosis of Progressivism.  Jewish enrollment reached 40% at Columbia College in 1914; a quota system was installed to cut the proportion to 20%. Parkway planner Robert Moses took charge of building many bridges, parks, public housing units, and parkways with mainly federal money. On the whole, the police kept a tight lid on inter-group violence.. The clothing industry produced uniforms, and machine shops focused on war materials.  Reaction to the disaster spurred the growth of the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union, and took place in the context of broader union movements coordinated by the American Federation of Labor. They were attacked by workers or boys throwing debris from the factory windows. Over one million lived in New York, where by 1910 they comprised a fourth of the city's population. They built elaborate networks of ticket agencies in Europe, offering low-cost one-way packages.  There were smaller but steady streams of "Old immigration" sources in Ireland, Britain and Germany. Researchers applied laboratory-based advances in bacteriology and immunology to the treatment and prevention of this disease, thereby eradicating it as a major threat. One line of business catered to upscale tourists headed in both directions, with American and British lines in competition. The recently completed Empire State Building would be known as the "Empty State Building" for many years because it could not attract sufficient tenants in the bleak business climate. During this time, New York City became known for its daring and impressive architecture, including notably the skyscrapers which transformed the skyline.  Prominent players included Reggie Vanderbilt and John Bet-a-Million Gates. However it began adding graduate programs, a law school and a medical school, as well as a graduate school of education and a business school. , The Jazz Age featured celebrities, among the most notable in the city were Madame Polly Adler; jazz singer Ella Fitzgerald; dancer Martha Graham; speakeasy host Texas Guinan; publisher Henry Luce of Time magazine; writer Dorothy Parker and the pundits at the Algonquin Hotel; editor Harold Ross at The New Yorker magazine; and such nationally famous sports heroes as Babe Ruth and Bill Tilden.. After the canal's opening in 1825, New York City became the most important center for commerce on the continent, and New York became known as The Empire State.  A few tens of thousands of people died in the "Spanish flu" epidemic of 1918–1919. Fordham became coeducational in 1964. When New York Governor Franklin Roosevelt became president, the Hooverville shacks named after his predecessor dotted city parks.  The ethnic papers played a major role in keeping immigrants in touch with the old country. It originated in the nineteenth-century "rag trade" of Jewish tailors, cutters, pressers, peddlers, and shopkeepers. The race to the sky culminated in the dueling spires of two Art Deco icons—the Chrysler Building and the Empire State Building—during the late 1920s. Jewish men still had doubts about educating girls, and poor families needed the money they could earn in full-time jobs.  Consolidation in 1898 multiplied the power of these reform groups, whenever they could agree on a common agenda such as consolidation itself.  In addition there were many smaller specialized schools such as Wagner College (Lutheran), Yeshiva University (Jewish), St. John's University (Catholic), Pratt Institute, Juilliard School of Music, Parsons School of Design, Brooklyn Polytechnic Institute, and The New School for Social Research. The modern five boroughs, comprising the city of New York, were united in 1898. The Roaring Twenties were years of glamour and wealth, highlighted by a construction boom, with skyscrapers built higher and higher in the famous skyline. By 1900 it was a largely Jewish owned and operated industry, and most workers were Jewish, although other new immigrants were being hired. They immediately became a force for further population spread and development. In sharp contrast to the leaders of Tammany, he cooperated very smoothly with Franklin Roosevelt both as governor and as president.. They typically had strong neighborhood organizations, known as "political clubs", as well as one prominent leader often called "the boss". However, the last large expansion of the subway system, combined with the merger of privately owned Interborough Rapid Transit and Brooklyn–Manhattan Transit subway companies with the city-owned Independent Subway System under city ownership, made the subway largely what it is today. He defeated a corrupt Democratic machine, presided during the Depression and world war, made the city the model for New Deal welfare and public works programs, and championed immigrants and ethnic minorities. It accumulated in the streets and was swept to the sides like snow. Increased immigration of unskilled Catholic and Jewish workers from Southern and Eastern Europe expanded the labor force until the World War ended immigration in 1914.  Smith became governor in the 1920s but lost the presidential election in 1928, even though he did very well in Catholic strongholds. Wagner served in the United States Senate from 1927 to 1949, where he was a leader of the New Deal Coalition, paying special emphasis to supporting the labor movement.. By clicking ‘Sign up’, you agree to receive marketing emails from Business Insider Jackson, Kenneth T. and Hillary Ballon, eds. Account active He was defeated in 1917 by John Francis Hylan; Hylan was re-elected in 1921 and collaborated closely with Hearst until he was ousted by Al Smith and Tammany in 1925. since. The shift came in the 1930s, as more of them stayed in school, although at only half the rate of Jewish girls. Phelps Stokes; The Iconography of Manhattan Island Vol 3. The Catholic school system grew from an enrollment of 79,000 in 1900, to 286,000 in 1930, peaking at 332,000 in 1960. 1926, I.N. In the late 1800s and early 1900s, New York City's trash problem reached epic proportions. , Politics in the borough from 1922 to 1953 was under the tight control of the Democratic organization, with Edward J. Flynn at the helm. He reorganized the police force, defeated the still-powerful Tammany Hall machine, and reestablished the merit system in place of patronage jobs. The Malbone Street Wreck killed 93 of the 650 passengers and seriously injured over hundred more. But New York, originally called New Amsterdam, was a highly desired piece of land. However, after its purchase by Adolph Ochs of Knoxville, Tennessee, in 1896, it reached an upscale audience with unbiased and detailed news. The city became a showcase for New Deal spending, especially through the Public Works Administration and the Works Progress Administration. , The city's Protestant elites sent their young men to university-preparatory schools in New England and then to Ivy League colleges, and their young women to the Seven Sisters colleges or to finishing schools. However, recent historical research shows that the factory workers were mostly Germans, not Irish, and that the police were following standard practice in quelling a riot. It needed McClellan to run for re-election in 1905 to beat off the tremendous challenge by independent publisher William Randolph Hearst. He lacked the common touch and lost much of his working class support when he listened to Prohibitionists eager to crack down on the liquor business.. These incredible black and white photographs, which document everyday life in New York City, are a glimpse back at this era.  Straus Park, on the Upper West Side, commemorates Isidor Straus and his wife Ida, who both died in the disaster. The large printing industry was scarcely affected. April 20 - New York's first constitution was adopted; June - Election for the first governor took place. 1776 - July 9 - Existing as a colony of Great Britain for over a century, New York declared its independence becoming one of the original 13 states of the Federal Union. ", Edward T. O'Donnell, "Hibernians Versus Hebrews? , Starting in 1895, William Randolph Hearst, a mining heir from San Francisco, challenged Joseph Pulitzer, from St. Louis, Missouri, for dominance on the newsstands. New York City has been described as the cultural capital of the world. The main bases of the economy were construction, ocean shipping, garments, machine tools, and printing. Subscriber King Charles of England seized Dutch ships in 1664 and won control of the colony, changing its name to New York. The congestion at the port led experts to realize the need for a port authority to supervise the extremely complex system of bridges, highways, subways, and port facilities in the New York-New Jersey area. Gabriel Goldstein and Elizabeth Greenberg. Its football team had a national reputation. The Wall Street Journal provided detailed coverage of business affairs. With a statewide election impending, it became a major campaign episode, leading to the election of Al Smith as governor.  One serious episode took place in 1902, when the procession of 25,000 to 50,000 Jews marching for the funeral of Jacob Joseph, the chief rabbi of the Orthodox community, passed the Hoe factory. New York City dominated the national industry, with Chicago and Los Angeles trailing far behind. The wide range of schools included elementary, junior high schools, as well as comprehensive, academic, and technical senior high schools. Fusion reformer John Purroy Mitchel, a favorite of President Woodrow Wilson, was elected in 1913. During the rush hour, he made a series of bad mistakes, lost control on a downhill slope, and was racing at high speed when he crashed at a sharp curve outside of Prospect Park station. An emphasis was placed on expertise and scientific organization of large scale projects. Those who came to America as young girls picked up English quickly, but the older they were on arrival, the harder the language appeared. Jewish oral tradition blamed the anti-Semitism of both the Irish factory workers and the police. Next Section Rural Life in the Late 19th Century; City Life in the Late 19th Century Marshall Field's Building, ca. Both Hearst's Journal and Pulitzer's World favored the Democrats, and both sought to maximize their sales through yellow journalism with exclusives based on sensationalism, sports, sex and scandal, and features such as comic strips, puzzles, recipes, and advice columns.  Tammany Hall went along, under the new leadership of Charles Francis Murphy. The Great Depression brought a surge of unemployment, especially among the working class, and a slowing of growth. It was led by men such as the Reverend Charles H. Parkhurst, the leading Presbyterian pastor and president of the New York Society for the Prevention of Crime; reform mayor William L. Strong, and his police commissioner Theodore Roosevelt. A small percentage were rejected because of obvious disease; the steamship companies had to pay their fair back, so they screened for sick passengers ahead of time in Europe. Printer Friendly Version >>> Imagine the year is 1920 and you are talking with a sixty year-old man who moved to New York City around 1880. In pictures: New York City street scenes from the early 1900s Archived photographs from the Bain Collection show daily life in NYC at the dawn of the 20th century. Public school enrollment rose from 553,000 in 1900, to 1.1 million in 1930, and then declined a bit. New York, long a great American city with many immigrants, became a culturally international city with the brain drain of intellectual, musical, and artistic European refugees that started in the late 1930s. However, they were finally overthrown in 1933 by reformers who elected and repeatedly re-elected Fiorello La Guardia. The Jews fought back and quickly had the factory and its 1,800 men and boys under siege, breaking all its windows. The working-class was served by hundreds of neighborhood gambling parlors, featuring faro card games, and the omnipresent policy shops where poor folks could bet a few pennies on the daily numbers, and be quickly paid off so they could gamble again. An entirely different group of 1.4 million poor Yiddish-speaking Jews from Russia and Eastern Europe fled pogroms and anti-Semitism between 1880 and 1914. Mar 27, 2012 - Explore Betsy Kent's board "Photos of 1900's NYC", followed by 146 people on Pinterest. That year, the cities of New York—which then consisted of present-day Manhattan and the Bronx—and Brooklyn were both consolidated with the largely rural areas of Queens and Staten Island. The favorite activities included games of chance such as cards, dice and numbers, and betting on sports events, chiefly horse racing. Labor unions rose and fell and rose again. , European immigration escalated exponentially during the early 20th century; the new arrivals were mostly Catholics or Jews, especially Italians and Poles as well as Yiddish-speaking Jews from Eastern Europe. New York's financial sector came to dominate the national and the world economies. Tin Pan Alley developed toward Broadway, and the first modern musical, Jerome Kern's Show Boat, opened in 1927, as the theater district moved north of 42nd Street. The Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America was a more radical breakaway group that formed in 1914. New York became a hot spot for pirates to sell their loot, offering luxury at a cheap price. La Guardia was a domineering leader who verged on authoritarianism but whose reform politics were carefully tailored to address the sentiments of his diverse constituency. , Violent confrontations between ethnic groups were strikingly common. Postmaster General Frank Harris Hitchcock is handing Earle the bag of mail, and Edward M. Morgan, postmaster of New York can be seen standing next to the plane.  Gaynor proved much more independent than expected and was denied renomination.. After 1900, Rockefeller and Carnegie largely devoted their interest to philanthropy, as to a certain extent did Morgan. The garment industry involved the manufacture of ready-to-wear clothing for men and women, as well as the wholesaling of these products to stores around the country. In the quiet times, the machines had a solid core of supporters and usually exercised control of city and borough affairs; they also played a major role in the state legislature in Albany. 1918, I.N.  The Irish remained in control of Tammany, and the leadership had many opportunities for what Alderman George Washington Plunkett called "honest graft" such as an inside track to lucrative construction contracts without any stealing or committing illegal acts. With the help of Robert Moses he directed the building of low-cost public housing, public playgrounds, parks, and airports.  By 1917, New York was funding the world war efforts of Britain, France and for other Allies. Phelps Stokes; The Iconography of Manhattan Island Vol 6. When peace arrived in 1945, New York was clearly pre-eminent in the world, as the only major world city unscathed by the war. 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