One month later, near modern-day Fort Recovery, his force advanced to the location of Native American settlements near the headwaters of the Wabash River, but on November 4 they were routed in battle by a tribal confederation led by Miami Chief Little Turtle and Shawnee chief Blue Jacket. In 1802, St. Clair remarked the U.S. Congress had no power to interfere in the affairs of those in the Ohio Territory. Miami chief, Little Turtle, defeated St. Clair's troops in an ambush near the Wabash River. He named Cincinnati, Ohio, after the Society of the Cincinnati, and it was there that he established his home. Although an investigation exonerated him, St. Clair resigned his army commission in March 1792 at the request of President Washington, but he continued to serve as Governor of the Northwest Territory.[6][7][8]. Major General Arthur St. Clair From Bob Stevens we find web pages about Major General Arthur St Clair, who was a friend of George Washington, a general in the United States Army, president of Congress, and governor of the Northwest Territories.He came from Thurso in Caithness, Scotland.. We also have a legend and much other information about his daughter, Louisa, some information about … St. Clair's Campaign of 1791: A Defeat in the Wilderness That Helped Forge Today's U.S. Army. Saint Clair’s Defeat, (November 4, 1791), one of the worst defeats ever suffered by U.S. forces in Indian warfare, precipitated by British-Indian confrontation with settlers and militia in the Northwest Territory following the American Revolution. He was appointed a brigadier general in August 1776, and was sent by Gen. George Washington to help organize the New Jersey militia. A portion of the Hermitage, St. Clair's home in Oak Grove, Pennsylvania (north of Ligonier), was later moved to Ligonier, Pennsylvania, where it is now preserved, along with St. Clair artifacts and memorabilia at the Fort Ligonier Museum. He also sought to end Native American claims to Ohio land and clear the way for white settlement. St. Clair was forced to retreat at the Siege of Fort Ticonderoga on July 5, 1777. In hopes of reclaiming lost hunting grounds with British support, a Northwest Indian Confederation was gradually molded between 1785 and 1787, consisting mainly of Shawnee, Delaware, Ottawa, Iroquois, Ojibwa, Miami, and Potawatomi. The American Indians had soundly defeated St. Clair's army. The location was in the Old Northwest Territory, which included today’s Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin and parts of Minnesota. It has been accepted for inclusion in Dissertations by an authorized administrator of Loyola eCommons. The high point of Arthur St. Clair's long military career, which began when he was a young British officer in the French and Indian War, ... Washington's army followed St. Clair's plan and defeated the British at Princeton the following morning. [9] He thus played no part in the organizing of the state of Ohio in 1803. Many of the eastern Indian tribes supported the British during the American Revolution because they were told the British would stop or severely limit white migration and settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains and south of the Great Lakes. This led President Thomas Jefferson to remove him from office as territorial governor. The United States military realised it needed a well-trained standing army following St. Clair's Defeat on November 4, 1791, when a force led by General Arthur St. Clair was almost entirely wiped out by the Western Confederacy near Fort Recovery, Ohio. A Federalist, St. Clair hoped to see two states made of the Ohio Territory in order to increase Federalist power in Congress. His small garrison could not resist British General John Burgoyne's larger force in the Saratoga campaign. Arthur St. Clair ({OldStyleDateDY|March 23,|1737|1736}– August 31, 1818) was an American soldier and politician. The Battle of the Wabash, also known as St. Clair’s Defeat, named after the expedition’s leader, Major General Arthur St. Clair, occurred on 4 November 1791, and was one of the first tests of the fledgling U.S. Army of the Early Republic. On April 17, 1759, he received a lieutenant's commission and was assigned under the command of General James Wolfe, under whom he served at the Battle of the Plains of Abraham which resulted in the capture of Quebec City. He was then made governor of the Northwest Territory in 1788, and then the portion that would become Ohio in 1800. [10] St. Clair had been a petitioner for a Charter for Nova Caesarea Arthur St. Clair (March 23, 1737[1] [O.S. In 1791, St. Clair commanded the American forces in what was the United States's worst ever defeat by the Native Americans. Stories. Confederation warriors silently infiltrated the sleeping camp and mounted a surprise attack the next morning, killing more than 600 militiamen. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Iroquois, any member of the North American Indian tribes speaking a language of the Iroquoian family—notably the Cayuga, Cherokee, Huron, Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Seneca, and Tuscarora. Rather than settling the Native Americans' claims, the treaty provoked them to further resistance in what is also sometimes known as the "Northwest Indian War" (or "Little Turtle's War"). 1736]– August 31, 1818) was an American soldier and politician. It would be the largest defeat of American soldiers in the history of the army against Native American forces. The St. Clair Expedition of 1791 or Defeat of the U.S. Army against the Miami Tribe & their Allies Commander: Major General Arthur St. Clair. Under the command of General St. Clair, more than 900 American soldiers were killed and almost 300 wounded. In October 1791 as an advance post for his campaign, Fort Jefferson (Ohio) was built under the direction of General Arthur St. Clair. Source: Fairfax Downed, Indian Wars of the U.S. Army 1776-1865 (1963), pa. 54-59. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. 1736] – August 31, 1818) was an American soldier and politician. St. Clair was at Yorktown when Lord Cornwallis surrendered his army. He took part in George Washington's crossing of the Delaware River on the night of December 25–26, 1776, before the Battle of Trenton on the morning of December 26. Arthur St. Clair was a Patriot. Instead, St. Clair was soundly defeated by the Indians in what has been called the bloodiest battle of pioneer American history. Under the Northwest Ordinance of 1787, which created the Northwest Territory, General St. Clair was appointed governor of what is now Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, along with parts of Wisconsin and Minnesota. Indian morale was temporarily strengthened by St. Clair’s Defeat, and white settlement of Ohio was retarded while frontiersmen clung to the protection of nearby U.S. forts. President George Washington demanded that St. Clair resign from the army. ", William O. Odo, "Destined for Defeat: an Analysis of the St. Clair Expedition of 1791. An American Civil War steamer was named USS St. Clair. By: Stanley L. Klos. He still faced problems with the American Indians. The first punitive expedition, led by General Josiah Harmar in 1790, was ambushed. Born in Scotland, he served in the British Army during the French and Indian War before settling in Pennsylvania, where he held local office. Little Turtle, or Michikinikwa (1747 - 1812) was a leader of Miami people and one of the most famous Native American military leader of the time. Major General Arthur St. Clair (Library of Congress) The first Ohio Constitution provided for a weak governor and a strong legislature, in part as a reaction to St. Clair's method of governance. "Arthur St. Clair and the Struggle For Power in the Old Northwest, 1763–1803" (Dissertation. Miss Bayard's mother's maiden name was Bowdoin and she was the sister of James Bowdoin, colonial governor of Massachusetts. Arthur St. Clair died in poverty in Greensburg, Pennsylvania, on August 31, 1818, at the age of 81. He still saw action, however, as an aide-de-camp to General Washington, who retained a high opinion of him. Eventually, these tribes would hand the country a military defeat on a scale that would be seen again until the Civil War. St. Clair did so on April 7, 1792, but remained governor of the Northwest Territory. In 1791 a second force of 3,000 men under General Arthur St. Clair carelessly pitched camp south of the Maumee River with few guards the night of November 3. Under the command of General St. Clair, 900 American soldiers were killed and 350 wounded. The tide was reversed three years later, however, at the Battle of Fallen Timbers. As Governor, he formulated Maxwell's Code (named after its printer, William Maxwell), the first written laws of the territory. We mostly know it as St. Clair’s Defeat. President George Washington demanded that St. Clair resign from the army. [4] The court exonerated him and he returned to duty,[4] although he was no longer given any battlefield commands. Arthur St. Clair (March 23, 1737 [O.S. The U.S. Army faced the Western Confederacy of Native Americans, as part of the Northwest Indian War. Arthur St Clair, 1772 Manuscript court order for men to lay off the rout of a road. This is a laid, watermarked, and rag-content 1772 document with some separation at folds, small holes at intersection of folds and along folds, and a stain. The 1783 Treaty of Paris, which ended the American Revolutionary War (a war in which American Indian tribes were overwhelmingly allied with the British and were treated as defeated powers, following the American victory over the British), recognized United States sovereignty of all the land east of the Mississippi River and south of the Great Lakes. ... Command on the frontier was given to Arthur St. Clair, an experienced Scottish-born frontier fighter going back to the French and Indian War. Whether that would have actually happened is irrelevant because the Americans won and the British allied tribes were forced to move farther west. It was called the Battle of the Wabash but also known as St. Clair’s Defeat after Major General Arthur St. Clair, the man who made it happen. In 1770, St. Clair became a justice of the court, of quarter sessions and of common pleas, a member of the proprietary council, a justice, recorder, and clerk of the orphans' court, and prothonotary of Bedford and Westmoreland counties. St. Clair issued an order for the arrest of the officer leading the Virginia troops. It remains the greatest defeat of a US Army by Native Americans in history, with about 623 American soldiers killed in action and about 50 Native Americans killed. In 1774, the colony of Virginia took claim of the area around Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and some residents of Western Pennsylvania took up arms to eject them. The Indian tribes in the Old Northwest, however, were not parties to this treaty and many of them, especially leaders such as Little Turtle and Blue Jacket, refuse… St. Clair's defeat, also known as the Battle of the Wabash, the Battle of Wabash River or the Battle of a Thousand Slain, was a battle fought on November 4, 1791, in the Northwest Territory of the United States of America. During his military service, St. Clair was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 1780.[5]. Other articles where Arthur St. Clair is discussed: Battle of Fallen Timbers: Context: Arthur St. Clair. Where he saw action in the days following November 4, 1791, St. Clair commanded the Indians! Member of the Northwest Indian War Federalist power in the organizing of the Cincinnati Ohio! On September 17, 1791 signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, her... 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